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American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Fact of the Day - September 2014

Brought to you by the AAEM Resident & Student Association (AAEM/RSA)

September 17, 2014

There is no significant difference in compression rate and depth between CPR performed on manikins placed on the floor and those placed at a rescuer’s knee height

Oh JH, Kim CW, Kim SE, Lee, et al. Comparison of chest compressions in the standing position bedside a bed at knee level and the kneeling position: a non-randomized, single blind, cross-over trial. Emerg Med J 2014;31:533-535 doi:10.1136/emergmed-2013-202443

September 06, 2014

  • ≥37 weeks gestation, and hospitalized no longer than the mother
  • Infant was previously healthy
  • Infant was well-appearing, with no ear, soft tissue, or bone infections

Laboratory criteria were as follows:

  • WBC 5,000 to 15,000/microL with an absolute band count <1,500/microL
  • Urinalysis with <10 WBC/hpf and no bacteria seen
  • Stool with <5 WBC/hpf if obtained

Strategies for the evaluation of fever in neonates and infants (less than three months of age).Literature review current through: Feb 2014. | This topic last updated: May 9, 2013, Uptodate article accessed 3/22/14

September 05, 2014

Testing the gait of a child who normally is ambulatory will help to evaluate for occult joint infections.

Harwood and Nuss Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine Fifth Edition Lippincott, Philadelphia, 2010

September 04, 2014

Free water needs for a 24 hour period are 100ml/kg/24 hour for the first 10kg, 50ml/kg/24 hr for second 10kg, and 20ml/kg/24hr for body weight over 20 kg.

Harwood and Nuss Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine Fifth Edition Lippincott, Philadelphia, 2010

September 03, 2014

A very low serum bicarbonate has been associated with a higher clinical degree of dehydration in pediatric patients

Harwood and Nuss Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine Fifth Edition Lippincott, Philadelphia, 2010

September 02, 2014

The potential for dehydration is inversely proportional to the child's age. Total body water and the percentage of daily fluid turnover are highest in infants younger than 6 months old. In these infants rotaviral gastroenteritis, shigellosis, or salmonellosis can cause dehydration in minutes to hours.

Harwood and Nuss Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine Fifth Edition Lippincott, Philadelphia, 2010

September 01, 2014

The CHEST guidelines atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter state that patients should receive peri-procedure anticoagulation and be continued on oral anticoagulation for 4 weeks following cardioversion, but these suggestions are rated 2C and have no quality evidence supporting them.

You JJ, Singer DE, Howard PA, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012;141:e531S-75S.